Monday, May 25, 2020
An interview protocol was utilized in this study. This instrument was designed to keep the face-to-face interview on track and effective. So, for that reason, the questions for this interview were determined by trying to create an instrument that would lead to the answers to the research questions. An interview protocol with semi-structured questions was used with the interview protocol. Likewise, the data collection consisted of 10 interviews that were conducted during the spring session of 2010. The interview protocol allowed the participants to express their perceptions and opinions in their own words. Also, the protocol helped to minimize leading or directing participants to answer the question in a particular manner. InÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Questions 7 through 11, 19, and 23 were designed to address Research Question 3: What challenges do African American female secondary school educators experience with their colleagues in terms of racist attitudes, salary, and respect issues? Question 12 through 16, 20, and 24 were designed to address Research Question 4: What challenges are African American female secondary school educators challenged within their relationship with their administrator with regard to inequities, gender, and teacher education issues? After the completion of the face-to-face interviews, the researcher contacted the participants via the telephone for a brief thank-you and gave the participants the opportunity to express any other thoughts that they had. The goal of this interview protocol was to allow respondents to tell their own experiences as seen through the eyes of the participants. Similarly, the primary goal of the interview protocol was to develop a theory of persevering through the use of semi-structured questions, allowing the participants the flexibility to frame and structure their responses. Not to mention, the fundamental component of this qualitative research was that the phenomenon under study would unfold through the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. Data Analysis The researcher relied heavily on the transcripts for analyzing the data. In light of this, the researcher employed constant comparison of participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses with the goal of organizing the data into systematic
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Socio-economic status is something that everyone deals with, whether they know it or not. It shapes the United States, and how people interact with others around them. My parentÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-economic status has been in this constant change and uncertainty until just recently. I grew up with two single parents, my parents just divorced when I was three and my sister had just turned one. My parents had split custody so neither had child support coming in. During the early stages of my childhood I can remember both of my parents struggling but they never really showed it. My mother always tried her best to keep food on the table, continue to keep us in nice clothes, maintain the apartment, and keep her middle-class life style with her friends. MyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Also, he did not like school and wanted to join the workforce as soon as he could. When I was growing up, I do not remember even hearing about college besides both my parents saying it is a must that I go. My dad has worked for a power company since I was born. He also had a side pressuring business, while I was in elementary school, but he sold it after three years. The power company that he works for is known as Tampa Electric Company (TECO). My dad has done many jobs within this company but has mainly stuck to fixing meters, and peoples power. My dad when I was growing up would have to be in the lower middle-class. He always tried to do fun things with my sister and I. I remember him taking us to waterparks, the beach, fishing or to the local arcade. I do want to get out of my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s social class. Both my parents are doing fine now, they live a good life, they have a lot friends who are middle class, but I remember their struggle. I do not want to have to worry about money, or tell my children that they cannot do something due to the reason of money. I would like to see myself in the upper middle-class category. However, I do not see myself being in the 1% elite, also known as the capitalist class. These people always have to prove themselves and keep this social persona that I do not want to deal with. I would like to live a good life without having to worry to keep a certain image, and not having to worry about money. According to the book: TheShow MoreRelatedSocio Economic Status Of The United States1443 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesschoolÃ¢â¬â¢s community among faculty, staff, students, and families are race, socio-economic status, and divorce/single parents. a. i. Race Ã¢â¬â With our country being the land of the free, you will always have different races coming into your community. What a great way to teach your children about different peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures.( Badger, 2012) ii. Socio-economic Status Ã¢â¬â After the recession a few years back, the socio-economic status of American has changed. People had to give up their houses and were firedRead MoreMama Might Be Better off Dead by Laurie Kaye Abraham968 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessuch as, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and an amputated limb (Abraham, 1993). Mrs. Jackson suffered these health issues because she was a poverty stricken women and experienced economically depressed living conditions. Due to her low socio-economic status, Mrs. Jackson did not qualify for full coverage Medicaid because she was not considered in a low enough income bracket unless she put more than half of her monthly social security towards health benefits (Abraham, 1993). As a woman with limitedRead MoreWorking Toward Whiteness : Working Towards Whiteness907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstudies he brings these practices to light and his goals to draw attention to the biased white supremacist policy of the government in the reg ulations of immigration. Roediger most evident strength would be that he has the adaptation of the Ã¢â¬Å"in-betweenÃ¢â¬ status of the new immigrants coming in, which they are neither accepted as white neither can they be able to identify themselves as their pre-existing background. Ã¢â¬Å"But on other levels, JamesÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze at Ã¢â¬Å"new immigrantsÃ¢â¬ a racially inflected term that categorizedRead MoreJuno Essay1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInformation networking and education SA. The government, health, education, community agencies and community support it. Public can make their enquires through their toll free health line and email. Cited in the movie were 2 organizations that deals with unplanned pregnancy - Haven Brook that requires parental consent and Women Now advertise in the newspaper. The latter choice is more popular with teens as it does not require parental consent. Prevention strategies of teenage pregnancy areRead MoreThe Social Determinants of Health and Wellbeing1657 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunder the spotlight of the media and the public due to issues addressed in documents such as The Francis Report (2010). This is good in a sense though as it gives us the opportunity to better ourselves as HCPs and improve the standard of care for everyone. It is now a widely known idea that there are many different factors that affect our health and wellbeing not just biological factors as believed to be the case not very long ago when a biological view was taken when addressing a persons healthRead MoreEssay on What if the Secret To Success is Failure?1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthemselves wrestling with questions that have long confounded not just educators but anyone trying to nurture a thriving child or simply live a good life. What is good character? Is it really something that can be taught in a formal way, in the classroom, or is it the responsibilit y of the family, something that is inculcated gradually over years of experience? Which qualities matter most for a child trying to negotiate his way to a successful and autonomous adulthood?Ã¢â¬ At both schools many studiesRead MoreReflection On Biases And Prejudice1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesits system. He shows interest in Ã¢â¬Å"the logistical and personal challenges that anthropologists face in the field as a result of their subject positions marked by raceÃ¢â¬ (25). In the aspect of anthropologists, it is particularly difficult for them to deal with race due to the subjectivity of other peoples cultures. An anthropologistÃ¢â¬â¢s job typically requires them to observe and understand how particular cultural functions and the traditions associated with it. Being an outsider, one finds it more difficultRead MoreCommunication Theory Model2068 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthey approach the problem in negative ways. Socio-cultural Factors There are many socio-cultural factors that contribute to family issues, such as race, ethnicity, class, economic status, gender, education, and sexual orientation. Socio-cultural factors can sometimes provide support to the family in resolving their problems, or conversely, can sometimes be the cause of problems. For example, if different groups of family members have unequal socio-cultural factors, this may negatively affectRead MoreThe Social Learning Theory And Its Effects On Our Society1612 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand crime will never be a huge problem when there is hope of gaining a steady, well paying job. This is because once people have a stable job they have self-esteem, the fourth stage of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs. They feel accepted and hopeful, something that will never drive anyone to commit a suicidal act. Terrorism, gang violence and militias have risen in relatively isolated places on earth. For example, the IRA, IRB, and RIRA carried out hundreds of mortar attacks, car bombings, and other brutalRead MoreGraffiti Vandalism Essay981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinescapable knowledge that the environment he must endure [Ã¢â¬ ¦] is uncontrolled and uncontrollable, and that anyone can invade it to do whatever damage and mischief the mind suggestsÃ¢â¬ (Kelling). The psychological effects of graffiti contribute to the real socio-economic effects of this type of vandalism. Property values in an area are important indicators of who lives there; areas with lower property values have higher crime rates. Studies have shown that Ã¢â¬Å"criminal damage to property, such as vandalism, graffiti
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Corruption is still a major issue around the world. It affects business practices; it can infect all forms of government and knows no economic distinction. Although, most of the time it is a national matter, it usually bears international consequences. Briefly please describe the four forms of corruption and give a global example to each form of corruption. 1.) Petty Corruption is a public and private agent agreeing on exchanging the access to the service for money, a gift, or the promise of a future favor. When a government official requires a small business to pay a bribe or they will shut down there operations. This occurs in many low income countries and makes it difficult for small businesses to compete and in turn costs the nationÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The goals inlude: 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - by increasing GDP growth per person and increasing employment rates. Along with decreasing the proportion of people living off less than $1/day. 2. Achieve universal primary education Ã¢â¬â all children being able to complete a full course of primary schooling, increase enrollment in primary education and the literacy of 15-24 year olds. 3. Promote gender equality Ã¢â¬â eliminate disparity at all levels, increase share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector, and increase the proportion of seats held by women in national parliament. 4. Reduce the child mortality rates Ã¢â¬â reduce the under 5 mortality rates by two-thirds, increase children immunizations. 5. Improve maternal health Ã¢â¬â reduce maternal mortality ration by 3 quarters, and universal access to reproductive healthcare. 6. Combat Diseases Ã¢â¬â Halt HIV/Aids, universal access to treatments, and halt the incidence of malaria and other major diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability Ã¢â¬â integrate principles of sustainable development, reduce biodiversity loss, and provide safe drinking water along with proper sanitation. 8. Develop a global partnership for development Ã¢â¬â develop trading and financial systems, address special needs of the least developed countries, deal with the debt problems of developing countries. Results Ã¢â¬â There has been a broad reduction in extreme poverty as the proportion ofShow MoreRelatedpharmacoeconomic Essay14259 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pagesit is unclear to what extent these data are used to prioritize further research Ã¢â¬ ¢ Methodological and computational challenges are considered the major drawback to using VOI in real-life decision making, but analytic solutions for many of these issues are now available Ã¢â¬ ¢ Future research on VOI should continue to include the development of leaner VOI methods and start to systematically investigate the needs and preferences of decision makers as well as the relative importance of VOI estimatesRead MoreManchester Business School : Declaration And Ownership Of Intellectual Property Rights9003 Words Ã |Ã 37 Pagesencouragement. I would like to thank my dissertation supervisor Dr. Paul Jackson, for his continued guidance through the process. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. Yu-lun Liu, who spent countless hours on the phone with me in the final days of writing, to offer guidance and moral support. Many thanks to Dr. Diers, whose classes and American references were the ever so wonderful. Some of the most valuable lessons this year occurred outside the confines of Manchester Business SchoolRead MoreThe Emergence of the Fast Fashion Business Model and Imposed Quick Response Challenges for Chinese Fabric Manufacturers14773 Words Ã |Ã 60 PagesQuick Response Programs in Logistics and Supply Chain Management, International Handbooks on Information Systems, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-04313-0 20, c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 387 388 J.H. Peterson et al. 1 Introduction The global clothing sector provides the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest economic activity at a value of more than $1 trillion USD, encompassing a broad range of pursuits from textile and garment production to high proÃ¯ ¬ le celebrity and designer press coverage in the fashionRead MoreKkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk6406 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesEECS 569 MECHENG 452 MECHENG 567 MECHENG 581 MECHENG 586 MECHENG 587 MECHENG 588 MECHENG 589 Lean Program Engineering Designing in Quality Production Systems Engineering Design for Manufacturability Introduction to Robotics Global Product Development Laser Materials Processing Global Manufacturing Assembly Modeling for Design and Manufacturing Ecological Sustainability in Design and Manufacturing 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2. Energy and the Environment AUTO 533 Advanced EnergyRead MoreEssay on Bus 599 Week 11 Bus599 Week 115733 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesBUS 599 Complete Course BUS599 Complete Course Click Link for the Answer: http://workbank247.com/q/bus-599-complete-course-bus599-complete-course/21454 http://workbank247.com/q/bus-599-complete-course-bus599-complete-course/21454 BUS 599 Week 1 Discussion Company Description Throughout this course, you will develop a series of written papers / projects that you will later combine into a complete business plan for a Non-Alcoholic Beverage company. For this discussion, you must first review theRead MoreEffect of Risk Management in Oil and Gas Industry10589 Words Ã |Ã 43 Pages.................................................5 i. Risks associated with the oil and gas industry.......................................5 ii. Theory of risk management (RM)........................................................15 iii. The issues of product and service quality...........................................19 iv. The Link between RM and Company reputation..................................20 v. The concept of reputation risk....................................................Read MoreBrand Preference of Gym Enthusiasts on Energy Drink Products14209 Words Ã |Ã 57 Pagesto study the brand preference of gym enthusiasts on energy drink product, in this research we will focus on how gym enthusiasts choose the brand of energy drink they will purchase. Brand preference is a degree by which the consumers prefer one brand over the other. It also provides some information needed by the buyer, like how consumers choose the kind of product. It is important to study how brand preference may affect the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s buying behaviour in choosing and using their product and in acceptingRead MoreTechnical Interview Guide22795 Words Ã |Ã 92 Pagesinformation contained within. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of WallStreetOasis.com Page 1 Contents Technical Questions: Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 General Topics of Study .......................................................Read MoreNationalism and Transnationalism in the Context of the European Union28567 Words Ã |Ã 115 Pagesworkable guarantee of peace on the old continent, took place. The process, which began over fifty years ago, resulted in emerging the European Union in 1992. The building of a united Europe is undoubtedly one of the greatest historical undertakings of the century. That process, though, has not yet come to an end. There are many challenges facing the European Union, and one of the most vital issues is the question of national sovereignty and the persistence of nationalism. It is also influentialRead MoreManagement Challenges for the 21st Century.Pdf60639 Words Ã |Ã 243 PagesChallenges for the 21st Century PETER F. DRUCKER Contents Introduction: TomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"HotÃ¢â¬ Issues 1 ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢s New Paradigms 2 StrategyÃ¢â¬âThe New Certainties 3 The Change Leader 4 Information Challenges 5 Knowledge-Worker Productivity 6 Managing Oneself Acknowledgments About the Author Books By Peter F. Drucker Credits Front Cover Copyright About the Publisher iii Introduction: TomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"HotÃ¢â¬ Issues Where, readers may ask, is the discussion of COMPETITIVE STRATEGY, of LEADERSHIP, of CREATIVITY
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about theInformation System for Important Development in ES. Answer: Most Relevant and Important Development in ES In case of Enterprise Systems, the development of cloud technology is most significant and crucial. There are some essential reasons that enhance relevancy of cloud framework for business enterprises and other workplaces. Cloud has provided a central approach to all enterprises to store their data in online databases and these companies no need to make their own data centers. Moreover, cloud platform is secured and reliable to use and enterprise systems can be easily accessed just by using browsers on internet without any complex configuration of systems. The key needs of every business organization are direct and secure access to its databases for doing different business operations and to provide best online service to its potential customers. Here, cloud platform is helpful enough to achieve this. Besides this, as compare to traditional approaches of ES such as on-premises enterprise systems, cloud approach is easier, flexible, reliable and secured. Cloud technology is not only be neficial for large business organizations but small and medium sized organizations also prefer to use it for getting better outcomes from its business operations. Due to these reasons, I opine that cloud is latest development in ES (Software Advice, 2017). Recommendation about ES to Organization In my opinion, to upgrade existing systems of organization SAP S/4 HANA Cloud ES will be a suitable option. The main reason to recommend this technology is that it is a private cloud hosting service. Moreover, its other benefits also enhance its importance among business organizations (SAP Data Center, 2017). Those benefits include fast deployment of software solutions, innovative approach, risk level is low and appropriate support. It is one of the secure type of cloud platform. Nowadays, low risk level and innovative approach of software solutions are highly preferred by business organizations. Besides this, SAP HANA Cloud reduces the complexity of IT, its costs and operational risks. Eventually, it can be said that SAP Hana is a way to move to the cloud at own pace with reliability and flexibility. Therefore, if organization wants to upgrade existing systems then SAP HANA will be an effective approach to implement (Abd Elmonem, Nasr and Geith, 2017). Justification of Recommended Technology and Software Solution to Organization Today cloud technology is considered so advanced for storing hefty amount of information into online databases and for quick and secure access of information. These both are fundamental requirements of every organization and it can be fulfilled only with the help of cloud technology. On other side, if I talk about recommended SAP HANA solution then I can say that this software is cloud based itself and can be easily run on cloud framework. Moreover, cost of this software solution is in budget of organization. According to key needs of organization such as better storage, online access of information from anywhere and appropriate management of business activities by using Enterprise Systems and proper management of customers, all these can be satisfied with the help of cloud, its applications and software solutions. Cloud based framework is emerged technology and in future it will be more beneficial for its users (SAP, 2017). References Software Advice. (2017). Top Benefits of Cloud ERP vs. On-Premise ERP. [online] Available at: https://www.softwareadvice.com/resources/cloud-erp-vs-on-premise/ [Accessed 3 Oct. 2017]. SAP. (2017). SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud | In-Memory Cloud Solutions | SAP. [online] Available at: https://www.sap.com/india/products/hana-enterprise-cloud.html [Accessed 3 Oct. 2017]. SAP Data Center. (2017). The Value of SAP HANA Enterprise Cloud - SAP Data Center. [online] Available at: https://www.sapdatacenter.com/article/the-value-of-sap-hana-enterprise-cloud/ [Accessed 3 Oct. 2017]. Abd Elmonem, M., Nasr, E. and Geith, M. (2017). Benefits and challenges of cloud ERP systems A systematic literature review.
Monday, April 6, 2020
Introduction Personality refers to the characteristics of an individual that sets him/her apart from other individuals when subjected to varying circumstances. The development of personality is as a result of the interaction between an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic composition and the surrounding. Personality development begins even before birth and is influenced by many external factors.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Stages of Personality Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Many theories have been invented to explain the concept of personality development. This discussion explores the stages of personality development developed by Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson. The psychoanalytic theory was developed by Sigmund Freud and dealt with the emotional development from a sexual perspective. This theory was later modified by Erik Erikson who focused on the role of social interactions in personality develo pment. Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosexual Theory According to Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, a developing child has a particular Ã¢â¬Å"erogenous zonesÃ¢â¬ like the anus, mouth and genitals that are sensitive at each stage. Therefore, a child focuses on what stimulates his Ã¢â¬Å"erogenous zonesÃ¢â¬ at each stage. The needs of a child at each stage need to be met, otherwise he/she will end up getting stuck in that stage and this will affect him in adulthood. Freud came up with five stages of development which include the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages (Engler, 2008). The oral stage commences when a child is born. This stage lasts for about one and half years. At this stage, the mouth is the main point of focus for the child and the child spends most of the time sucking and trying to put everything in the mouth. At this stage, the ego and superego are not yet fully developed and, therefore, the child uses the id. With time, the baby realizes that satisfaction of its needs might not occur immediately and, therefore, he/she must behave in a certain way in order to speed it up. For instance, a baby cries when he/she wants the needs to be satisfied. When a baby is weaned, he/she experiences a sense of loss and the baby realizes that he/she must not always get what he/she wants. A child whose demands are not met at this stage develops a personality of sarcasm, envy, pessimism, and suspicion. Too much or too little oral satisfaction has a negative impact. A person who gets stuck in this stage may develop habits like biting nails and chewing things like pens as an adult. Someone who does not get enough oral satisfaction at this stage may also develop habits of eating and drinking excessively. However, a child whose needs are met at this stage ends up being optimistic and admires the surrounding environment (Engler, 2008). The anal stage begins when the child is about one and half years; when he/she starts getting trained on how to use the toil et. At this stage, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on expelling body wastes. A child may choose either to expel or retain the waste. The way in which the parents handle this conflict determines its resolution.Advertising Looking for term paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This crisis gets resolved when the child manages to adjust to the demands of the parents and the parents handle the child reasonably. Thus, with time the child will understand the importance of being orderly and clean, and will, therefore, end up being an adult with self control. If the parents are very harsh when training the child to use the toilet, the child may choose to comply and develop a personality of orderliness. However, a child who refuses to comply with the demands of the parents ends up being disorderly in future. A child who enjoys excreting irresponsibly will end up being careless, reckless, messy, defiant, and disorganized. On t he other hand, a child who enjoys prolonging the retention of body wastes ends up being orderly, miserly, stubborn, precise, and neat. This stage lasts for around two years (Larsen and Buss, 2009). Next is the phallic stage in which the childÃ¢â¬â¢s attention is on the genital area. The children become aware of the differences in their bodies and that of other children of the opposite sex. At this stage the child is obsessed with the parent of the opposite sex and desires to get rid of the other one. A male child will desire to possess the mother but sees his father as a hindrance. He starts getting envious of the father who he sees as his rival in the competition for the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s love. However, the boy is afraid that the father might castrate him. When the boy realizes that he cannot possess the mother, he tries to be like his father so that he can win her. Therefore, he tries to acquire the characteristics of his father. Thus, he learns his male sexual role, and this mark s the resolution of the crisis. On the other hand, the female child realizes that she does not have a penis and starts longing to have one. She blames her mother for her lack of a penis and develops Ã¢â¬Å"penis envyÃ¢â¬ . She feels that she cannot own the mother since she does not have a penis. When she realizes that she cannot get the mother, she gets attracted to the father. The girl learns her sexual role by trying to become like the mother so as to possess the father. Thus, the conflict is resolved. Failure to resolve this conflict may lead to women having very low self esteem, a desire to prove that they are superior to men or developing habits of flirting with men. For the men, failure to overcome this stage leads to them having high aspirations and arrogance. Failure to resolve the conflicts in this stage and identify with the parent of the same sex leads to recklessness, pride, fear of close love, and conditions like homosexuality (Larsen and Buss, 2009). The next stage i s the latency period in which the childÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual desires remain inactive. At this stage, children focus on other activities like games, schooling, and making friendships of the same sex. This stage occurs just before puberty. Failure to overcome the conflicts in the phallic stage might affect an individual in this stage and prevent him/her from engaging in the expected activities (Larsen and Buss, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Stages of Personality Development specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The next stage is the genital stage. At this stage, a childÃ¢â¬â¢s attention shifts back to the genitals and he/she starts making friendships with people from the opposite sex. At this stage, individuals try to detach themselves from parents and deal with the conflicts that were not resolved in the earlier stages. A child who resolved all the conflicts in the phallic stage will have healthy and proper relationships with the members of the opposite sex. However, a child who did not overcome the conflicts at that stage will end up having troubled relationships with the opposite sex (Larsen and Buss, 2009). Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory has several weaknesses. Firstly, personality cannot be developed only on the basis of sexuality. Erik Erikson also does not agree on the concept of basing personality development on sexual drive alone. Moreover, the stages of development are not supported by any scientific data but on case studies. Contrary to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory that an individual cannot have the ego and superego from an early age, studies show that these entities are evident in children earlier than at the ages he suggested (Ewen, 1998). Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Psychosocial Theory Erikson also believes that personality development occurs in stages. However, he does not agree with Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of psychosexual stages. He believes that personality development occurs as a result of social interaction with the environment. Through interaction with the environment, human beings develop an ego. At each stage of development, an individual is concerned with getting competent. If one manages to go through a stage successfully, their ego will be boosted and they will develop a sense of competence. However, failure to manage the stage properly will result in a feeling of insufficiency. At each stage, an individual goes through a conflict that can either build or destroy their personality (Engler, 2008). The first stage of personality development is that of trust or mistrust and occurs since a child is born up to when he/she attains the age of one year. At this stage the child is helpless and depends entirely on others to take care of him/her. The infant will develop feelings of either trust or mistrust depending on the care that he/she receives from the parents. If the people taking care of the child are able to efficiently take care of the child, he/sh e will develop trust and will always feel secure and safe. However, if the parents of the child show rejection and neglect to the child, he/she will develop mistrust and will have feelings of insecurity. This child might develop depression as a child and this may go on even in adulthood (Larsen and Buss, 2009).Advertising Looking for term paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The next stage is when the children develop as sense to control the functions of the body and a sense of autonomy. This occurs between the ages of one and three. Children begin to make choices between food, clothes and toys. During this stage, a child can either develop a personality of autonomy or that of doubt or shame. A child who exercises autonomy is always exploring the surrounding environment and trying to make new discoveries on his/her own. A child who develops feelings of doubt or shame is less confident and is less interested in exploring new surroundings. If a child successfully goes through this stage, he/she will develop feelings of security and confidence in future. Those who do not manage this stage well end up with feelings of insufficiency and doubt all their lives (Newman and Newman, 2007). Before children begin going to school, they go through another stage where they can develop feelings of either initiative or guilt. This is usually between ages three and six. At this stage the children develop their personality by interacting with others through playing and other activities. Those who develop feelings of initiative will tend to perform tasks to completion. However, children who develop a sense of guilt will be reluctant to express themselves and their interests and unwilling to try out challenging tasks. If a child manages through this stage, they will develop feelings of capability and a sense of leadership. Those who do not successfully go through this stage will end up feeling guilty, doubtful of their abilities, and devoid of inventiveness (Loevinger, 1997). Between the age of five to eleven years, children go through a stage of industry or inferiority. Through interacting with others, children begin to take pride in their achievements and talents. Children who develop feelings of industry like taking responsibilities because they believe in their abilities. On the other hand, children who develop feelings of inferiority at this stag e hate responsibilities because they doubt their ability in completing those assignments satisfactorily. The parents, teachers, and other people can contribute to the development of feelings of either inferiority or industry. If children receive encouragement from their teachers and parents because of their abilities and achievements, they will develop feelings of proficiency and confidence in their abilities. However, those who do not receive any support from teachers or parents end up doubting their capability to succeed in life (Loevinger, 1997). The next stage occurs during adolescence and individuals can either develop a sense of identity or confusion. This happens between ages 12 to 18. Individuals who feel a sense of identity will have a sense of direction in life and will be very sure about what they would like to become in life. For this reason, they go through this stage with their minds focused on achieving that purpose and their self esteem will be high. However, individ uals who feel a sense of confusion will lead a life devoid of purpose or direction and will not be sure about what they want to become in life. Such individuals will not be aiming to achieve any goals in life and will be leading a life without any future plans. These individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ self esteem is likely to be low. At this stage, individuals discover themselves and if they get sufficient support, they develop a good sense of independence, self consciousness, and control. Those who do not successfully go through this stage will end up being unsure about their lives and will remain confused and insecure in future (Loevinger, 1997). The next stage is early adulthood, between 18 to 35 years, where individuals start developing personal relationships. At this stage, people can either develop a sense of intimacy or that of isolation. People who manage to develop healthy relationships at this stage end up having secure and committed relationships in future. These individuals will be abl e to form stable relationships that can end up in marriage. However, those who fail at this stage end up having poor relationships and feelings of loneliness, depression, and isolation. Such people will have very few friends and will find it difficult to be involved in serious relationships that could lead to marriage (Larsen and Buss, 2009). When an individual enters adulthood, he/she can either develop a personality of generativity or stagnation. During this stage, people build their families and careers. A person who develops feelings of generativity will tend to be involved in some sort of productive work and will have an attitude of helping others. An individual who experiences stagnation will not be engaged in productive work and will be reluctant to help others. People who are successful in their careers and family life will end up feeling productive since they are contributing to the society. However, those who do not succeed in their careers and family life will end up feel ing fruitless and unproductive in life (Larsen and Buss, 2009). The final stage of personality development according to Erikson occurs in old age. In this stage, individuals look back at how they have lived through their lives and may develop feelings of either despair or integrity. Individuals who look at their life and feel that they have accomplished their purpose develop feelings of honor and satisfaction and will have few or no regrets. As they near their death, they feel at peace and feel that they have accomplished everything that they ever wanted to. Therefore, they do not fear to die as there is nothing that they would wish to change if they were given another chance. They are absolutely contented with the way they lived their lives. On the other hand, people who at this stage look back and feel that they have wasted their lives and have not accomplished their dreams will have regrets. They will wish that they had lived their lives differently. Consequently, they will end u p feeling bitter and desperate. They may develop a feeling that life is worthless. These people also fear death as they wish for another chance or more time to live so that they can do things differently and correct the mistakes that they made in the past (Loevinger, 1997). Even though EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of personality development has enhanced peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of social development, it has some weaknesses. The theory is unclear and does not state the real causes of personality development. It does not give a clear explanation about the factors that make individuals to develop in various ways and the impact of each stage on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality. The theory also does not clearly explain the method of overcoming the crises at each stage and moving on to the next. It also does not state what an individual is supposed to do in order to successfully go through the problems experienced at each stage (Newman and Newman, 2007). Moreover, all the stages do not match with the stages that all individuals go through in life. In some cultures, there is very little time between childhood and adulthood to discover oneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity since the individuals are married off at an early age. In other communities, an individual has no freedom to make choices as most of them are made by the parents, for instance, choice of career or marriage partner (Newman and Newman, 2007). Conclusion From the above discussion, it is clear that many theories have been invented to explain the stages that individuals go through in developing their personalities. Sigmund Freud felt that an individual goes through five stages that are influenced by the sexual drive. On the other hand, Erik Erikson differed with FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and invented eight stages of personality development that are influenced by the interaction of an individual with the surrounding. However, both theories have their shortcomings and have been criticized by other people. Both theories of p ersonality development might differ but at least the two agree on some things; like the fact that personality does not develop at once but over time and in distinct stages. Reference List Engler, B. (2008). Personality Theories: An Introduction (8th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Ewen, R. B. (1998). Personality, a Topical Approach: Theories, Research, Major Controversies, and Emerging Findings. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Larsen, R.J., and Buss, D. M. (2009). Personality Psychology: Domains of Knowledge about Human Nature (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Loevinger, J. (1997). Stages of personality development. Handbook of personality psychology, (pp. 199-208). Newman, B.M., and Newman, P.R. (2007). Theories of Human Development. USA: Routledge. This term paper on Stages of Personality Development was written and submitted by user Jul1us to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Budhism essays Does Buddhism differ from Hinduism on issues other than caste? Buddhism and Hinduism are very similar in many ways, but differ in that Buddhists were encouraged to detach themselves from desires and wants while Hindus were encouraged to pursue things such as sexual, social, and physical pleasure. Some members of the Buddhist religion were known as Ascetics and would starve themselves in order to overcome desire. Week after week, these extremists would wither away and all in the name of their spirituality. Siddhartha Gautama, later known as Buddha, or The Enlightened One went through these trials . He laid under a tree for 49 days meditating, until he felt he reached his goal of shirking desire....despite attempts from of armies of Mara, the evil one, the divine lord of the Realm of Desire... (A71) he perservered and succeeded. From brahmin to pupil, the idea that desire is the cause and origin of suffering continued to branch out to many people. An end to wanting things will bring an end to sadness and pai, and in my mind, this equates to if one doesnt want to be let down, dont want anything. If the standards are high, or if there are any standards at all, then there will be a let down. Buddhists disconnect themselves from everything in relation to joy because if one can be happy then it can also be taken away, and if it can be taken away it must not be needed. Hindus are very much allowed to want things that are not necesities in life. They believed that if one was active in the world and participated in how things happen, theyd be promised Salvation. If one lived a noble life and obeyed moral laws they wouldbe rewarded. Hindus are even encouraged to attain economic happiness, something that would be looked down upon by the Buddhists. Rebirth was an obstacle to the Hindus. They wanted to live happy, successful, pleasing lives, but did not wish to...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Managing Creativity & Change - Essay Example Creativeness is the major pillar that will lead to change since if the managers and the whole fraternity of the firm are creative then the organization will have a lot of changes thus achieving their goals while at the same time attaining a competitive edge. The hierarchal management changed because of three reasons; global economy, working environment and improved technology. Tips to manage change and creativeness Change and creativeness in an organization leads to new innovation and thus the goal has been achieved. The first option to manage change and creativeness in the firm is first agreeing the business case with the members who are actively involved. Secondly is to understand the number of stakeholder in the new programme. This means that one has to explain how the programme will work and what it entails. Thirdly is encouragement to those who are affected by change making sure that they are fully involved in the decision making process. For change to be accepted in the firm ma nagers must explain the importance that will have to outweigh the disadvantages of the old system. Fourthly is to make sure that all the staffs and the management have the required skills (Clark, 1980). Fifth is to make sure that change must be implemented into phases to make it effective so as to achieve the goals. The next tip is behavioral changes to the staffs this means that the implementers must be quick to respond to the feedback and listen so that they can be aware of successfulness of the change to the individuals. This means that acceptance areas must be known and the rejection and weaker areas addressed accordingly. The next tip is to make sure that technology has worked for the first time, this stage delays and frustration are... Change and creativeness in an organization lead to new innovation and thus the goal has been achieved. The first option to manage change and creativeness in the firm is first agreeing on the business case with the members who are actively involved. Secondly is to understand the number of stakeholder in the new program. This means that one has to explain how the program will work and what it entails. Thirdly is the encouragement to those who are affected by change making sure that they are fully involved in the decision-making process. For change to be accepted by the firm managers must explain the importance that will have to outweigh the disadvantages of the old system. Fourthly is to make sure that all the staffs and the management have the required skills (Clark, 1980). Fifth is to make sure that change must be implemented in phases to make it effective so as to achieve the goals. The next tip is behavioral changes to the staffs this means that the implementers must be quick to re spond to the feedback and listen so that they can be aware of successfulness of the change to the individuals. This means that acceptance areas must be known and the rejection and weaker areas addressed accordingly. The next tip is to make sure that technology has worked for the first time, this stage delays and frustration are normal to the firm but the most important thing is to make sure that user testing has taken place. And lastly is to make sure that no other change should be carried before the first is successfully accepted in the firm.